as part of the ‘green architecture for the future’ exhibition, the louisiana museum
of modern art invited 3XN architects to design a pavilion demonstrating cutting edge
possibilities with sustainable and intelligent materials.
the vision of the project was to build with biodegradable and energy-generating
materials, creating an energy-self-sufficient architecture that also can be part of,
and be decomposed in, the biological cycle after use.
well-known synthetic products have been substituted with biological and reusable
materials. for the outer shell of the sculpture, glass fiber composites have been
substituted with a bio composite from flax fibers cast in biological resin. cork sheets
replace polystyrene foam for the inner core.
for the sculpture, the newest built-in technologies have been applied creating
a dynamic and green architecture. on the top face of the pavilion, 1mm flexible solar
cells are placed. the cells are cast in thin film making them applicable to double curved
surfaces. piezoelectric materials that generate an electric current from the weight of
the visitors are laid in the floor. combined, this makes the sculpture self-sufficient
with energy to power the integrated led lights.
the 'learning from nature' pavilion has a coating of nanoparticles that makes the surfaces
self-cleaning. due to a hydrophilic nanostructure, rain water is dispersed beneath the dirt
on the surface, leaving it cleaner. a second coating adds air cleaning properties to the pavilion.
a chemical process called photocatalysis decomposes up to 70 percent of pollutants from
the pavilion retains heat by using phase changing materials. heated by the sun, the material
retains the energy, releasing it again when the temperature drops. at exactly 23 degrees celsius,
the material changes from a solid to a liquid form. when the temperature rises, the material
absorbs energy and is liquefied. when the temperature drops, it solidifies and releases energy.
in other words, the surface of the pavilion remains cooler when the temperature of the surroundings
is rising, and vice versa. it is estimated that phase changing materials can cut costs with
10 to 15 percent on heating and cooling of buildings.
the design of the pavilion is optimized according to function and material consumption.
the mode of expression and material consumption is digitally designed to meet the exact
needs, i.e. 14 layers of fiber and 84mm of cork are specifically designed to meet the dynamic
forces arising from wind load and the load from people walking on the surface.
the design team
participating from 3xn was: kim herforth nielsen, kasper guldager jørgensen,
rasmus møller, christian bundegaard, stian lenes and morten myrup.
3xn – architects and project management
cowi – engineering and light design
stage one freeform composites – production and installation
basf, the chemical company – phase changing materials
ashland inc. – producer of bioresin
amorim cork composites – producer of cork
libeco-lagae – producer of natural fibers
flex cell – producer of flexible photovoltaic
noliac motion – producer of piezoelectric materials
nano-x gmbh – self-cleaning surface coatings
phillips – producer of led light
3m – structural tape
micronal pcm©, climate control – phase changing materials
optima projects limited – composite consultant
netcomposites ltd. – network within composites
scenetek – installation of electrical components
danish technological institute – self-cleaning counseling
risø national laboratory dtu – composite testing